The cooperation spectrum offers a range of options

The spectrum of international regulatory cooperation ranges from unilateral action through informal cooperation to various forms of formal cooperation.

The toolkit is based on a continuous cooperation spectrum spanning the following broad areas.

In this section

Unilateral action

Unilateral action involves recognising regulatory outcomes, or adopting elements of, another country’s regulatory regime.

Informal cooperation

Informal cooperation involves countries collaborating to improve how their regulatory regimes work together without having a formal agreement in place.

Formal cooperation

Formal cooperation is generally the most durable form of cooperation. It’s usually governed by binding treaty-level agreements or formal arrangements, and reflected in domestic law.

Regulatory agencies can use options from any point in the spectrum or use a range of options that complement each other.